26 mar. 2010

Escuela Infantil Santa Isabel / Kindergarten Santa Isabel


Localización / Location: Zaragoza, España (2007)
Arquitectos / Architects: Santiago Carroquino (http://www.carroquinoarquitectos.com/). Dirección de obra: Santiago Carroquino, Hans Finner (http://www.hansfinner.de/)
Fotografías / Images: Lluís Casals (http://www.lluiscasals.com/)
Enlaces / Links: mimoa, plataforma de arquitectura, archdaily

La Escuela Infantil de Santa Isabel se presenta como una pieza geométrica, optándose por una construcción in situ.
El proyecto se concibe en planta y en sección como dos grandes cajas de hormigón, vidrio y madera en cuyo interior se albergan por un lado el programa educativo (aulas, dormitorios y sala múltiple) y por otro los servicios (sala profesores, comedor, cocina e instalaciones).
Las cajas se cierran a norte protegiéndose de las inclemencias meteorológicas y la calle. Por el contrario, hacia el sur se abren mediante un paño de U-GLAS con carpintería de madera y vidrio buscando el soleamiento y la visión del patio de juego.
In this building typology, the type of user who will occupy the space is very much taken into account. The fact that they are children is a major conditioning factor in the project, and so the aim was to treat this building with special sensitivity. The result is a series of luminous and comfortable spaces in which the safety of the children is paramount.
The Santa Isabel nursery school is presented as a geometric piece developed on the plan and section as two large units of concrete, glass and timber and housing, on one hand, the edu¬cational programme with classrooms, bedrooms and multiple use room and, on the other, the services such as teachers' room, refectory, kitchen and installations.
The blocks are closed off to the north in order to protect them from the inclemency of the weather and the noise from the outside. In contrast, they open to the south through a glazed enclosure framed in timber and glass, seeking sunlight and the vision of the playground.
TEXTO COMPLETO / FULL TEXT
La Escuela Infantil de Santa Isabel se presenta como una pieza geométrica, optándose por una construcción in situ.
El proyecto se concibe en planta y en sección como dos grandes cajas de hormigón, vidrio y madera en cuyo interior se albergan por un lado el programa educativo (aulas, dormitorios y sala múltiple) y por otro los servicios (sala profesores, comedor, cocina e instalaciones).
Las cajas se cierran a norte protegiéndose de las inclemencias meteorológicas y la calle. Por el contrario, hacia el sur se abren mediante un paño de U-GLAS con carpintería de madera y vidrio buscando el soleamiento y la visión del patio de juego.
En la medianería entre aulas se plantean unos patios menores que ofreciendo áreas de juego acotadas, permiten una visión longitudinal del bloque de aulas.
El encofrado de la envolvente de hormigón, se realiza mediante tablas de madera de distinto formato marcando un despiece vertical en el cerramiento. Todo ello procura que la textura de la envolvente de hormigón no pierda la calidez de la madera del encofrado iniciando un juego con el U-GLAS.

El acceso principal del edificio se produce por la fachada oeste, (C/Iglesia), encaminándose a la franja de unión de las dos cajas (educativa y de servicios).
Los accesos de peatones al Centro Infantil y vehículos se encuentran diferenciados, siendo también independientes las circulaciones de niños y educadores, respecto a las de mantenimiento e instalaciones.
El proyecto procura la versatilidad y plurifuncionalidad de las aulas. Éstas se separan mediante sistemas de tabiquería móvil que permiten la unión de las dos aulas para niños de la misma edad en una, posibilitándose un programa educativo diferente y apto para más alumnos. A ésta disposición se han adaptado los cambiadores, aseos y dormitorios que funcionan bien para las aulas estándar y para la fusión de éstas en una.
Por otra parte, la cota 1,20 m aplicada a las alturas, define en todas las estancias el límite entre el espacio adaptado al niño y el del adulto. Este mecanismo de la existencia de una línea de “nivel” permanente a 1,20 m será determinante en la vida del edificio fijando la posición “no al alcance de niños”.
La consideración del material hasta 1,20 m como rodapié, refleja con claridad los criterios de limpieza y fácil mantenimiento.
La madera tiene una presencia determinante en el juego compositivo, no solo por los distintos usos en carpinterías y suelos tanto interiores como exteriores, sino también en el recuerdo y ausencia que se dibuja en la textura de los muros de hormigón realizados con encofrado de tablas.
Interiormente la omnipresente tarima industrial flotante dota a los suelos de la calidez y resistencia necesaria en un pavimento para niños, orientándose a modo de guía longitudinal del edificio recibiendo y uniendo a su paso las carpinterías de madera interiores y exteriores en sus diversos formatos.
Exteriormente la linealidad del entablonado potencia los juegos compositivos a veces contraponiéndose, como en el entarimado de las puertas, otras trasponiendo el ritmo de la fachada al pavimento, del U-Glass a la tarima de exteriores, y otras dotando de vida al hormigón imprimiéndole una textura de vaciados que deletrea su método constructivo.
In this building typology, the type of user who will occupy the space is very much taken into account. The fact that they are children is a major conditioning factor in the project, and so the aim was to treat this building with special sensitivity. The result is a series of luminous and comfortable spaces in which the safety of the children is paramount.
The Santa Isabel nursery school is presented as a geometric piece developed on the plan and section as two large units of concrete, glass and timber and housing, on one hand, the edu¬cational programme with classrooms, bedrooms and multiple use room and, on the other, the services such as teachers' room, refectory, kitchen and installations.
The blocks are closed off to the north in order to protect them from the inclemency of the weather and the noise from the outside. In contrast, they open to the south through a glazed enclosure framed in timber and glass, seeking sunlight and the vision of the playground.
Context. This school is situated in Santa Isabel a district separated from Zaragoza by the river Gallego and a bridge that is drawn up every morning.
This school together with those of the districts of Oliver, La Paz and Actur, all of them designed by the same team of architects, is integrated into the framework of new municipal teaching facilities catered for in the Districts Plan undertaken by Zaragoza City Hall.
Structure and materials. The building is conceived on the plan and section as two boxes of concrete, glass and timber, materials that acquire a great deal of importance in this architectural project, in a search for the relative insulation from the outside provided by glass and the climatic warmth of wood.
The main entrance to the building is in the west facade ant is produced by sliding and joining together the two volumes: educational and services. Pedestrian and vehicle accesses to the nursery school are differentiated, as are the circulations of children and teachers, from those set up for maintenance and installations.
The boxes are closed off to the north to protect them from the inclem¬ency of the weather and the street. In contrast, they open up to the south through a pane of U-Glass fitted in a double braided comb structure, with timber and steel frames, to seek out sunlight and view of the playground. The hard perimeter has been designed as an element of thermal inertia, with the erection of a double-leaf concrete wall with interior thermal insulation. The external sheet is produced through timber shuttering with different squaring to thus highlight, through the texture, the vertical treatment of the enclosure as an alternative to the south facade. Participating in this play are the timber and steel frames in which the U-Glass is fitted. As a limit to the plot, the rhythm of vertical planes is transmitted to the perforated sheet steel lattice, integrating the perimeter fence in the idea.
The shuttering of the concrete shell is made with wooden boards in different formats, emphasising a vertical breakup in the enclosure. Thanks to this, the texture of the concrete shell does not lose warmth of the timber used in the shuttering and initiates a play with the U-glass.
Interior architecture. The project brings versatility and multifunctionality to the classrooms. They are separated by means of mobile partitioning systems that allow two classrooms for children of the same age to be united into a single one, facilitating a different educational programme that is suitable for more pupils. Adapted to this layout are the changing rooms, lavatories and bedrooms, which operated well for the standard classrooms and for fusing them into one. Each module is separated from the adjacent one by an outdoor, soft floor patio that, besides adding a longitudinal vision and providing I acoustic insulation, permits new lighting possibilities. The entire project has been arranged into multiples and sub-multiples of a hundred and twenty centimetres as the standard measurement. This characteristic is determined principally by the standard dimensions of the cribs, a hundred and twenty by sixty centimeters, as well as by the rest of the materials, a factor that means that they made the most of, generating a minimum of waste, lower cost and control factor on the building site.
Moreover, the hundred-and-twenty level applied to the heights defines in all the rooms the limit between the space adapted to the child and that of the adult. This mechanism of the existence of a permanent "level" line at one metre twenty will be a determining factor in the life of the build¬ing, setting the position of "out of reach of children". The consideration of the material up to the one metre twenty level as a skirting board clearly reflects criteria of cleanliness and easy maintenance. The interior partitions are always in a fixed thickness, even the skirting board. It consists of double two-face plasterboard, with one of the boards replaced by a plinth in glass, viroc panel or tiling. Equally, different meeting points with the frames are designed, in which the existence of the joint where the material changes is made evident without a joint cover.
Wood plays a determining role in the compositional play, not only because of the different uses given to frames and floors both indoors and out, but also in the memory and absence sketched on the texture of the concrete walls made from the timber shuttering.
In the interior, the ever-present industrial floating floorboards give the floors the necessary warmth and resistance in a floor for children. They are laid to act as a longitudinal guide to the building, taking in and uniting in their route the frames of the interior and exterior wooden frames in their different formats.
Conclusions. The project and execution of the works were tackled with the profound awareness of the special sensitivity with which an environment must be conceived in which the principal users are children of a very young age. The result is a series of austere, highly luminous and fluid spaces, welcoming and sheltering. The somewhat hard image of the exterior contrasts with the materialisation of the light in the interior, in which the subtle lighting variations of the classrooms, the play of longitudinal visions and the rhythm of the patios redirect the complex to the protected playground. The school has been conceived through a paternal approach in which shelter against outside hostility is transformed into light-filled tenderness in the interior, focusing on the supervised playground. To sum up, two play boxes and possibilities.

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